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How to Identify Resources from their Citations

Is this a citation for a book, a journal article, or a chapter in an edited book?

Basic guidelines:


Sample Citation:  Andrews, Lori. 2000. The Clone Age: Adventures in the New World of Reproductive Technology. New York: Henry Holt.

What to look for: Books will generally have a year of publication, a city of publication (often, but no longer required in some styles), and an italicized title.


Journal Article

Sample Citation: Bonnickson, Andrea. 1998. "Transplanting Nuclei between Human Eggs: Implications for Germ-Line Genetics." Politics and the Life Sciences. 17: 3-10.

What to look for: Journal articles will include and volume and/or issue number, a date of publication, inclusive page numbers, and the article title is usually surrounded by quotation marks to designate it as a smaller work. 


Chapter in an Edited Book

Sample Citation:  Caplan, Arthur. 1997. "The Concepts of Health, Disease, and Illness." In Medical Ethics. 2nd edition, ed. Robert Veatch. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

What to look for: Chapters from edited books will often use the word "In" before an italicized title and generally include an editor as well as an author. In addition, the chapter title is usually surrounded by quotation marks to designate it as a smaller work.

Note: Due to limited technological capabilities in the past, some older bibliographies may underline titles, rather than italicize them.

Citations may vary by the author's choice of style. Try the guidelines above, but if you still have questions, ask your professor or a librarian for help.